More than a hundred and twenty terpenes are known in the cannabis plant to promote various health benefits. Terpenes can help define the cannabis smell, taste, and outcomes of different strains. Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common and often abundant terpene found in cannabis. Its distinctive flavor contributes to the spiciness of black pepper and can be found in high amounts in cloves, hops, and rosemary. It falls under the FDA’s “generally recognized as safe” classification, so large doses can be safely consumed.

Josh Kaplan and Nick Jikomes  discuss the dietary cannabinoid BCP in an article on Leafly. Go to the link to see a great video on the subject. CB2 receptors are found in immune tissues throughout the body and are increased in the brain in disease or following injury. CB2 activation reduces inflammation lessens pain and reduces the damaging consequences to the brain and the risk of developing brain diseases.

Beta-Caryophyllene and Pain


In one study, scientists injected mice with BCP and found that they experienced less pain than those treated with the control solution. Furthermore, BCP enhanced the pain-reducing strength of low-dose morphine. This could be one reason why those using prescription opioids for pain are often able to decrease their dose of opioids when they begin using medical cannabis.

Inflammation and Brain Aging

Numerous inflammatory diseases affect the digestive tract. Colitis is one such disease where inflammation of the intestines causes pain, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and even increases the risk for cancer. In mice that were experimentally given colitis, treatment with BCP helped by decreasing inflammation in the colon.

Synergistic Effects of Beta-Caryophyllene

The activation of CB2 receptors by BCP certainly plays a role in its anti-pain effects. Still, it also contributes to its ability to protect the body and brain from disease. For instance, brain inflammation plays a substantial role in the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, BCP activated CB2 and PPAR-γ receptors and reduced hallmark features of Alzheimer’s such as the accumulation of brain plaques. These actions also protect against the cognitive decline that characterizes this model of disease.

The Entourage Effect

According to their website, Foreverest Resources Ltd. is a family-owned company that specializes in pine chemicals. It has over 30 years of experience in researching and developing forest chemical products in China. They are dedicated to offering natural, natural alternatives, and derivatives of plant chemicals. Their products include modified resins, terpene-based derivatives, flavor and fragrance ingredients, and other bio-based chemicals.

Foreverest research has found the interaction of THC+ BCP can prevent the development of gastric issues. Additionally, BCP has been shown to counteract THC’s psychoactivity, which can be beneficial in instances where too much THC has been consumed. The interaction of CBD+ BCP can be a potential adjunctive treatment for substance abuse/addiction.

The interaction of Humulene+ BCP can have anti-inflammatory properties that make it practical for treating arthritis, bursitis, and fibromyalgia.

Antibacterial & Antimicrobial Properties

Studies suggest that BCP helps fight bacterial dental plaque build-up and makes it a potential alternative to typically prescribed medications like chlorhexidine. Also, it reduces microorganisms like Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, and E. coli.

Effects on Osteoporosis

Studies suggest BCP is a therapeutic agent to prevent and treat Osteoporosis. It is thought that BCP increases stronger bone building while decreasing bone breakdown. (Yamaguchi & Levy, 2016).

Effects on Cancer, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Multiple Sclerosis

A 2007 study published in the Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology indicated that when BCP is used in conjunction with the anti-cancer agent paclitaxel, it increases paclitaxel’s activity ten-fold in colon cancer cells. Additionally, when used together with alpha-humulene and BCP, it increased their anti-cancer activity in human tumor cell lines. Also, it can reduce inflammation connected with multiple sclerosis and immune system dysfunctions.

Strains high in BCP are GSC, Bubba Kush, Sour Diesel, Chemdog, Candyland, Death Star, Original Glue, Cookies and Cream, Gelato, The White, and Master Kush.

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